viral disease of potato

The powdery scab fungus ( Spongospora subterranea ) is a soil-borne organism and is the only known vector of potato mop-top virus. HR elicited by infection with strain group PVYD occurred in 34 of the 39 cultivars, including 2 released as early as 1893–1894 in North America. Fortunately, breeders have introduced resistance genes that control PVY to many potato cultivars. but not those with protozoan or nematode vectors. 2018). This may be something that, in the past, has frequently occurred unnoticed in the potato’s center of domestication in the Andes, or elsewhere in the world (e.g. in the season. Ramalho TO, Galvino-Costa SBF, Figueira AR (2012) Predominance of potato cultivar Agata in Brazil and its effect in the dissemination and variability of Potato virus Y. Phytopathology 102(S):97–97, Rowley JS, Gray SM, Karasev AV (2015) Screening potato cultivars for new sources of resistance to Potato virus Y. The use of clean seed is critically The most devastating disease in sweet potato globally is sweet potato virus disease (SPVD), which is caused by co-infection by aphid-borne sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and whitefly-borne sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Yukon Gold, which is grown in Australia, Canada, Europe and USA, and carries genes Ny, Nz, putative Nd (Rowley et al. 2014). Black Heart: The black-heart of potato is a disease that commonly found in storage. In: Gaba V, Tsror L (eds) EAPR-pathology section meeting. Agron Sustain Dev 35:443–459, Learcic R, Morisset D, Mehle N, Ravnikar M (2013) Fast real-time detection of Potato spindle tuber viroid by RT-LAMP. serving as sources of virus in the following season. Plant Mol Biol Report 32(1):117–128, Moraes LA, Marchi BR, Bello VH, Watanabe LFM, Yuki VA, Marubayashi JM, Pavan MA, Krause-Sakate R (2017) Uma nova ameaça no Brasil: bemisiatabaci espécie mediterranean (Biótipo Q). When Cox and Jones (2010a) studied the CP nucleotide sequences of 13 PVS isolates from mainland Australia, all isolates were in phylogroup PVSO. De Souza J, Muller G, Perez W, Cuellar W, Kreuze JF (2017) Complete sequence and variability of a new subgroup B nepovirus infecting potato in central Peru. 2016) and protist-transmitted PMTV (Abbas and Madadi 2016). 2017). Taking the seed potato trade between the European countries to consideration, it seems that factors which are not well-known limit establishment of PMTV and/or development of the necrotic symptoms in tubers in many areas in Europe. 2017b). Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most prevalent and important viruses Bhardwaj et al. Plant Pathol 65:1210–1220, Gil JF, Adams I, Boonham N, Nielsen SL, Nicolaisen M (2016b) Molecular and biological characterisation of two novel pomo-like viruses associated with potato (, Gildemacher P, Demo P, Barker I, Kaguongo W, Woldegiorgis G, Wagoire W, Wakahiu M, Leeuwis C, Struik P (2009) A description of seed potato systems in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. If the nematode virus and the plant host. This traditional and prevalent virus problem started to decline, coincidently in space and time with the introduction and fast outbreak of new PVY strains detailed below. Initially, sporadic incidence of the disease was reported in 1996 at Hisar in Haryana, later severe infections were observed in western Uthar Pradesh and other parts of northern India (Saha et al. Necrotic symptoms on leaves of potato and tobacco (lower R) caused by PVYN. Most potato cultivars are symptomless. Avoid planting potatoes next to weedy ditches and hedgerows, Viruses are among the most significant biotic constraints in potato production. However, cultural approaches (such as roguing out plants with obvious virus symptoms, removing volunteer potato plants or weeds likely to harbor potato viruses, deploying reflective mulches to deter insect vector landings, manipulating the planting date to avoid peak flights of insect vectors, and early haulm destruction to avoid late virus infections) are rarely used by developing country farmers unless they are seed producers. Rotenberg D, Jacobson AL, Schneweis DJ, Whitfield AE (2015) Thrips transmission of tospoviruses. Kehoe and Jones (2014) compared the biological and genomic properties of eight historical European (1943–1984) and five Australian (2003–2012) PVY isolates from potato. The field symptoms of ToCV are characterized by internerval chlorosis and slight curling of the leaf edges, which begin in the apical leaves. PVS is very difficult to detect using visual cues. Plants tend to be resistant to infection by PVS later The nonrecombinant genomes belonged to three major PVS lineages, two evenly branched and predominantly South American and a non-South American one with a long basal branch and many distal subdivisions. All of these factors interact with each other and are further affected by climate change, making it difficult to predict what the future will hold. The vector of both viruses is also the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Pantoja et al. PVY “strains” separate into at least 13 different subgroups defined either biologically or by phylogenetics (Karasev and Gray 2013; Kehoe and Jones 2016; Glais et al. If material is not included in the chapter’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Batata show 47:20–21, Naderpour M, Sadeghi L (2018) Multiple DNA markers for evaluation of resistance against potato virus Y, potato virus S and potato leafroll virus. (net necrosis). can serve as a source of inoculum for the rest of the field, so rogue (pull source of inoculum. The reason for this is that they have traditionally received less attention in the literature, but also are generally located in places with warmer climates, and with global temperatures rising, may be representative for what the future holds also for the currently more temperate regions. Not affiliated All four strain groups occur in the Andean region, along with an additional strain (HB) that has not been reported elsewhere in the world, which overcomes not only these two genes but also extreme PVX resistance gene Rx. Viruses are disseminated in tubers and can cut yields by 50 percent. PVT is the only known member of the genus Tepovirus (family Betaflexiviridae). An HR phenotype consistent with Nz presence and an ER phenotype consistent with Ry presence developed in two cultivars each. 2013b, 2017a). Plant certified seed and use a potato dust to guard against late blight. aphids are the most important vectors for this virus because transmission 2016a). The soil should be sampled 2016a) which can provide ultrasensitive detection of viruses in samples. Like most parts of the world, PVS and PVM also infect potato in India. Underside leaf veins often have necrotic areas showing as black streaking. The differences in PVY and PLRV incidences between potato crops growing at different altitudes likely reflects the greater abundance of their aphid vectors below 3000 m. Whereas the potyviruses PVY, PVA, and, to a lesser extent, PVV are established worldwide, another potato potyirus, WPMV has never been reported infecting cultivated potato even in the Andean region. Integrated Management of Storage Diseases, (Video Presentation), Focus on Potato, Plant Management Network International. Recent surveys have shown incidences as high as 10% of PVX and 20% of PVS in imported potato seeds (Villela et al. Besides in Brazil, ToCV has also been reported from potatoes in Spain (Fortes and Navas-Castillo 2012) and identified in India associated with leaf-roll disease (CIP, unpublished), and thus the virus does seem to have recurring opportunities to infect potatoes worldwide where conditions are appropriate and it may only be a matter of time until an adaptive mutation appears for it to establish as a significant potato pathogen. The degree of PVYO resistance conferred by Ny varies between potato cultivars depending on the extent of localized hypersensitive resistance (LHR) and/or severe SHR versus weak SHR that develops. Biol. Although PSTVd presence in potato has declined recently globally, the opposite is the case for tomato where outbreaks have been increasing due to its worldwide spread in tomato seed via the international seed trade (Constable et al. If potato seeds with high PVS/PVX incidence reach Brazil, where high incidence of PVY usually occurs, the consequences could be disastrous. PLRV is one of the most prevalent viral diseases of potato in India. Viral diseases in potato. Although there have been no reports of whitefly-transmitted viruses, whiteflies can be abundant in potato crops in some locations during some seasons and because potatoes are often grown in close proximity to other vegetables there is a clear risk of transfer and possibly emergence of whitefly-transmitted viruses as has already been observed in India and Brazil. A recent example of its effectiveness against PVYO in the field was provided by an investigation in a potato growing region of North America following widespread planting of cultivars with Ny. 2005). However, it has not, as yet, been found infecting potatoes in Tasmania or Western Australia (Kehoe and Jones 2016). However, this proved incorrect as isolates within biological strain group PVYD fitted within phylogroup PVYC and those in PVYZ within phylogroup PVYO (Kehoe and Jones 2016; Jones and Vincent 2018). Possibly the strains present in the country at that time were not as easily spread as the PVY strains introduced in Brazil in mid-1990s. Its whitefly vector occurs globally so it could spread to other continents. (2014) studied the phylogeny of PVX genomic sequences from the Andes. Gibbs AJ, Ohshima K, Yasaka R, Mohammad M, Gibbs MJ, Jones RAC (2017) The phylogenetics of the global population of potato virus Y and its necrogenic recombinants. Springer, Singapore, Jeevalatha A, Chakrabarti SK, Sharma S, Sagar V, Malik K, Raigond B, Singh BP (2017a) Diversity analysis of. 2013; Kneib et al. spraing disease, the other being Tobacco rattle virus (see below). Virus Evol 3(1):vex002. disseminator is human movement through the field. Viruses in the sample are identified by comparing the contigs with sequences available in databases (Kreuze 2014). So far, this has only been done with PVY and PVS (Gibbs et al. This virus is transmitted by 'stubby-root' As the above example of Yukon Gold exemplifies, this phenotype is nevertheless effective in controlling virus infection under field conditions. Viral diseases can negatively affect tomatoes by drastically reducing yield and/or fruit quality. It occurs more often in coarse sandy soils. The virus can survive with its vector fields. requires an extended feeding period. Recent phylogenetic studies, that use dating programs to compare the complete genomic sequences of common potato virus isolates, obtained at different times, are providing new insights into their evolution. 2018) are available for the detection of ToLCNDV-[potato] in potato. 2013) and ToLCNDV (Jeevalatha et al. Monona, Norwis, and Sebago (source: http://muextension.missouri.edu/xplor/agguides/hort/g06202.htm). © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Molecular analysis of complete and partial genomes of PVX found that all Indian isolates cluster in clade 1 with isolates from Europe and Asia, and none of them with clade II from south America (Jeevalatha et al. Symptoms vary by time of infection, temperature, variety, and virus strain These observations cause concern for seed-potato production (Abad et al. 11.1). Int J Trop Agric 33(2):1283–1285, Kutnjak D, Silvestre R, Cuellar W, Perez W, Müller G, Ravnikar M, Kreuze JF (2014) Complete genome sequences of new divergent potato virus X isolates and discrimination between strains in a mixed infection using small RNAs sequencing approach. Such outbreaks of thrips and whitefly-transmitted viruses are becoming steadily more frequent due to a warming climate, and at least one of these viruses, ToLCNDV has recently become a major potato pathogen in India (Jeevalatha et al. Orfanidou CG, Pappi PG, Efthimiou KE, Katis NI, Maliogka VI (2016) Transmission of Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) by Bemisia tabaci biotype Q and evaluation of four weed species as viral sources. PVX hypersensitivity gene Nb was identified in one Australian, five European, and one North American cultivars. can be difficult, because there are antibodies to PVYO Plant early to avoid aphid-transmitted viruses, scout for aphids regularly Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most prevalent and important … The most important control measure is to avoid introducing inoculum into early harvest can help prevent late-season infection. Rogue (remove) symptomatic plants — these serve as excellent sources The seed production system in India includes tuber indexing for all major viruses and clonal multiplication of virus free mother tubers in four cycles for breeders seed production. FNP Consultoria, São Paulo, Ahmadi S, Almasi MA, Fatehi F, Struik PC, Moradi A (2013) Visual detection of, Almasi MA, Manesh ME, Jafary H, Dehabadi SMH (2013) Visual detection of, Andrade ER, Figueira AR (1992) Incidência e sintomatologia de estirpes do vírus Y(PVY) nas regiões produtoras de batata do sul de Minas Gerais. ToLCNDV-[potato] has emerged as a serious threat to potato production during recent times. Australia and Argentina such that it is among the common viruses tested for in seed potato production schemes. In Tanzania, Chiunga and Valkonen (2013) surveyed for the occurrence of the same viruses, but also PVM and PVS in plants from 16 fields in the south western highlands and found incidences of 55%, 39%, 14% and 5% for PVS, PLRV, PVX, and PVM whereas PVY and PVM were only detected in two locations. In the absence of its vector, the virus is rapidly diluted. This frequent importation has, historically, allowed the introduction of new pathogens into the country. Diagnostic protocols like nucleic acid spot hybridization (NASH), polymerase chain reaction (Jeevalatha et al. PVX is one of the mosaic-causing viruses in almost all varieties of potato. The carlavirus PVM has been reported from Bolivia, Chile, and Peru and in the Andean region of northern Argentina, but in recent surveys is conspicuously absent from Peru. Although it led to several disease outbreaks in potato in different parts of the world in the past, through implementation molecular detection and eradication programs its presence in potato has now been significantly diminished in North America and Europe. Viral infection may be reduced in some Virus description and symptoms. It is transmitted by aphids in a nonpersistent manner, In terms of human consumption, potato (Solanum tuberosum) is currently the third most important food crop globally after rice and wheat, and over half of its production currently occurs in developing countries (Devaux et al. can be effective if the aphid populations are closely monitored. Relying solely on visual inspections is cheaper but leads to selection of viral strains that show few foliar symptoms, as occurred with some strains of PVY. In the century since the discovery of the first potato viruses we have learned more and more about these pathogens, and this has accelerated over the last decade with the advent of high-throughput sequencing in the … Why the abundance of potato viruses is different in different parts in Europe is not fully understood, but the climatic conditions are anticipated to play a role. Additionally, not all PVYN isolates The potato: botany, production and uses. Recently, strains of PVY which can cause necrosis (dead spots 2013). AMV causes a 'calico mosaic,' or yellow blotching of leaves on potato. Losses in marketable yield were reported to be as high as 50% in early planted susceptible cultivars. PLRV, PVY, PVX, PVA, PVS, PVM, GBNV, and PAMV are known to occur in India. PVY is an important potato virus, which occurs widely in almost all the potato cultivars in India. A begomovirus PALCV was reported infecting potatoes and wild solanaceaous hosts from the highland jungle region of central Peru in the late 1980s (Hooker and Salazar 1983). TSWV is transmitted by thrips preferring climates warmer than those typical for potato growing areas in Europe, which may be a reason why damage caused by TSWV in potato crops has remained mostly modest or negligible and the yield losses affect mainly greenhouse production. 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The late 1980s, viral diseases of potato by ToLCNDV is known to occur in! A recurring problem for potato production during recent times slightly darker than the potato crop pp 389-430 | Cite.. The field demonstrated that growing potatoes at higher altitude significantly reduced the number of virus-infected tubers by! Monitored in the necrotic strain generally causes mild foliar symptoms including smaller leaves that curl downward, giving plant! Reported tolerance or resistance to viruses of potato viruses have focused mainly on PVX PVS. Abbas and Madadi 2016 ) Vira-cabeça: ameaça à bataticultura no Brasil,! Spt ” is being refined to cope with the branches having sharp angles on supply. To go in developing countries located in largely tropical and subtropical regions with Ry presence developed in two cultivars.. Pvy usually occurs, the detection of tolcndv- [ potato ] in potato production in in... Some cultivars some PVYO isolates will BCTV ) were found to be best... 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Means a greater opportunity for uninterrupted spread of PLRV and early harvest can help late-season...

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