cameroon what are the specific water sources the lions exploit?

Water points were classified as artificial (catchment dam, pump, or mill) or natural (one of the rivers). Although lions are now protected in many parts of Africa, they were once considered to be stock-raiding vermin and were killed on sight. 2006). 2008). 2002), so that smaller species would be found closer to water than larger species. Lion kills were closer to rivers and to artificial water points than expected by random distribution of the kills. Lions selected medium-sized prey species. We separated the effects of vegetation density and the presence of drinking water by analyzing locations of lion kills in relation to rivers with dense vegetation, which offer good lion stalking opportunities, and artificial water points with low vegetation density. In summary, lion predation is skewed toward medium-sized species and is distributed nonrandomly over the landscape, and water-dependent prey species are killed closer to water than are water-independent species. Some plants increase their water content by 25 to 40 percent, so when the gemsbok feed late at night or early in the morning, the plants provide them with both food and water. To learn more, visit. British Geological Survey. The spatial distribution of lion kills in relation to the distribution of their prey, and the traits of the prey species that determine their distribution, are not clear. Our results indicate a similar prey selection, with species such as zebra, wildebeest, and waterbuck as the positively selected species. 2009) but also the local community structure of the mammal assemblage (Mills and Shenk 1992; Owen-Smith and Mills 2006; Power 2002). Other ministries and specialized institutions are involved in the water sector. The larger buffalo also was selected, but in general, larger species were avoided. These forests provide a source of livelihoods for communities and habitat for over 9,000 plant species, about 900 bird species, and roughly 320 mammals — including the critically endangered western lowland gorilla and the endangered chimpanzee. 1994; Palomares et al. 2003). 1995). Moreover, impacts of lion predation differ among prey species, with medium-sized species being selected (Owen-Smith and Mills 2008; Sinclair et al. No significant effects of digestion type of the prey species (Wald χ21= 2.635, P > 0.10), their feeding type (Wald χ22 = 4.88, P > 0.05), their body mass (Wald χ21 = 0.95, P > 0.05), or season (Wald χ21= 0.53, P > 0.10) on distance of the kills to water points were observed. Larger species generally have a larger home range to satisfy their requirements (Haskell et al. Body mass, feeding type, or digestion type of the prey species were not related to the distance from the kills to water. Water dependency of the prey species and the distance of the kills to water were negatively associated. Lion kills of waterbuck are significantly closer to water points than expected based on chance simply because this prey species is not randomly distributed over the landscape. The presence of natural water sources therefore can influence the location of lion kill sites (Hopcraft et al. In the most comprehensive analysis, Hopcraft et al. Water use can include water used and then returned to its source (renewable resource). According to the JMP, Cameroon is therefore on-track to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for the drinking water sector of 75 percent by 2015 (see Figure 1). Thus, our study shows that prey availability is more important than prey vulnerability, consistent with the predictions of Ogutu and Dublin (2004) and inconsistent with the findings of Hopcraft et al. The differences in distances between kill sites and random sites did not differ for artificial water points and natural rivers (Wald χ21= 0.316, P > 0.10), indicating that water is the main factor in determining the kill location and that vegetation density around riverine areas does not have any effect on the kill location. According to the EPA, 68% of community water system users received their water from a surface water source, such as a lake (1). Kills were classified with respect to feeding type (Table 1), digestion type, and body mass. Across Africa & Asia we have built schools, medical clinics and community centres. Our results are surprising because the density of water sources is very high in Klaserie (100% of the Klaserie area is within 3 km from a water point), in contrast with Kruger National Park where 92% of the area is within 5 km of water (Redfern et al. In some areas, livestock predation remains a severe problem. (2009) showed that species react to the spatial heterogeneity in lion predation pressure, with browsers shifting to more open areas as an antipredator strategy but grazers being less affected. Willem F. de Boer, Marc J. P. Vis, Henrik J. de Knegt, Colin Rowles, Edward M. Kohi, Frank van Langevelde, Mike Peel, Yolanda Pretorius, Andrew K. Skidmore, Rob Slotow, Sipke E. van Wieren, Herbert H. T. Prins, Spatial distribution of lion kills determined by the water dependency of prey species, Journal of Mammalogy, Volume 91, Issue 5, 15 October 2010, Pages 1280–1286, https://doi.org/10.1644/09-MAMM-A-392.1. The odds-ratio was available for most species (94% of all 215 kills), but the water dependency of the missing 13 kills (5 species) were estimated using the expert opinion of the Klaserie Warden (for instance, the water dependency of warthog [Phacochoerus africanus] is characterized as intermediate to that of impala and water-buck). 2003). Difference in vegetation density is not an important feature to distinguish kill sites at this scale of analysis. Search for other works by this author on: Klaserie Nature Reserve, P.O. Lion kills were spatially clustered and were significantly different from a random distribution (Z = −39.67, P < 0.01). Moreover, grazers are more water-dependent than browsers because of the lower water content in grass, and nonruminants would need a larger home range than ruminants of similar size because of their generally larger intake requirements (Redfern et al. We found that lion predation pressure is not distributed uniformly over the area but is higher closer to water holes. 2), and kills were found closer to artificial water points than to natural river sources (Wald χ21 = 617.74, P < 0.001). A vulnerability is like a hole in your software that malware can use to get onto your device. They live in groups of between 15 to 20 lions with at most 3 males. Apparently, herbivores are distributed over Klaserie indifferent of their feeding type. 2005). See world total and list by country. The herd size and structure, behavior, and time of drinking by prey, and the presence of other herbivores are important factors in decreasing predation risk when drinking (Valeix et al. It was a scene I first filmed seven years ago and some of the cubs from that time are still splashing around today. 2007; Hopcraft et al. Cameroon - Cameroon - Plant and animal life: The hot and humid south supports dense rainforests in which hardwood evergreen trees—including mahogany, ebony, obeche, dibetu, and sapelli—may grow more than 200 feet (60 metres) tall. Distance of lion kills (n = 215) from water of random locations (white boxes) and lion kill locations (gray boxes). A male Lion will develop a mane by year 3, this will vary in color from blond to black. We used a chi-square analysis to test for differences in prey composition by using the observed kills for each prey species. Predation is known to influence the behavior of prey species (Fischhoff et al. © 1996 - 2019 National Geographic Society. 2004; Van Bommel et al. A generalized linear model, carried out in SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois), was applied with shortest distance between lion kill and water source as the dependent variable. Having once tried to give my cat a bath, I have the scratch marks to prove most cats... You can lead a cat to water, but can you make him swim? 2018. A. F. Bini L. M.. Redfern J. V. Grant R. Biggs H. Getz W. M.. Sinclair A. R. E. Mduma S. Brashares J. 2007) where lions exhibited a seasonal pattern in prey selection as a response to the lower availability of prey in the rainy season when prey species are spread over a larger area and no longer concentrate around limited water points. There are large numbers of orchids and ferns. They are often found lying on their backs with their paws overturned. This also might explain why we did not find the seasonal pattern in lion kills documented in other studies (Patterson et al. water rose from 50 percent in 1990 to 74 percent in 2008. 2001). – Raven A. Rentas. Hence, kills of smaller, grazing ruminants are expected to be found closer to water than those of larger, browsing nonruminants. Cubs have brownish spots that fade by 3 months but may persist, on there belly as an adult. 2003), which influenced the composition of lion prey. Water use can include water used and then returned to its source (renewable resource). This analysis yields chi-square values for each prey species, and the discrepancies between observed and expected values (residuals) were tested for each of the individual species when the overall chi-square test reported significant deviations from expectation (Siegel and Castellan 1988). (2003), who also found no relationship between the distribution of prey and these traits. 1). Perhaps the high density of water points and the year-round supply of water, creating a low gradient in water availability, are the reasons that these factors were unimportant in determining the distribution of herbivores. Operating eight water bowsers, five of which have a capacity of 20,000 litres, we have the ability to rapidly transport 124,000 litres of water at any one time. Work of the lion is to provide protection to the territory while the lionesses hunt. However, hunting success was only slightly higher in dense vegetation where it is thought to provide cover for stalking lions (Funston et al. Photo: Flickr. We separated the effect of water supply on predation by lions from the effect of cover provided by vegetation associated with rivers. 2009), and prey assemblage (Hayward et al. 1995; Owen-Smith and Mills 2008). The 3 species with the lowest Jacobs index were the 2 smallest species (impala and porcupine [Hystrix cristata]) and the heaviest (white rhinoceros [Cer atotherium simum]). We demonstrated that it was not vegetation density around natural water sources that increases predation risk for prey species but the actual presence of water, which was attracting prey species (Redfern et al. 1995; Owen-Smith and Mills 2008). The lions have learnt to thrive there - mainly due to the large buffalo population. United States Geological Survey (USGS) resources on surface water: 1. You can lead a cat to water, but can you make him swim? Here at Global Angels we have had many years of success in affecting change in villages and communities throughout the world. Water that attracted prey, and not the vegetation density in riverine areas, increased predation risk, with kills of buffalo (Syncerus caffer), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) as water-dependent prey species. When the Warden of Mpem and Djim National Park heard rumours of lions around his park, he decided to investigate. Type of water source (natural or artificial) or random point was included as a fixed factor, together with several other fixed factors—feeding type, digestion type (ruminant or nonruminant), and season—and the covariates body mass and water dependency. This variable is a better classification of the spatial distribution of a species around water than classifying the species as either water-dependent or water-independent. Don't have access to safe drinking water. This means that around 8 million people obtained access to an improved water source over this period. 2008; Ripple and Beschta 2006, 2007). I recently spent a few days following the lions at #DubaPlains and filming their swimming and wading in the water. Spatial autocorrelation did not compromise the analysis (Moran's I = 0.036, lag = 3.8 km, P > 0.05). 1998, 2001; Hayward and Kerley 2005; Lehmann et al. Large differences in the composition of lion prey are due to differences in prey availability, prey mass, lion sex and pride structure, and cultural differences, that is, differences in prey choice between prides through specialization (Funston et al. Matson also writes about his experiencs in his monthly column, “Boyd Matson Unbound” for, The National Geographic Society is a global nonprofit organization that uses the power of science, exploration, education and storytelling to illuminate and protect the wonder of our world. 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