utilitarian theory of ethics

Part I History of Ethics. Utilitarianism says in particular that the right action in any situation is the one that will produce the best outcomes, as measured by impact on everyone involved. Why or why not? [64] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle. The co-chair of the NFL’s Health and Safety Advisory Committee has said that the committee thinks helmets are part of the culture and tradition and will not be outlawed in the foreseeable future. By the time Sidgwick wrote, Utilitarianism had become one of the foremost ethical theories of the day. However, many such studies were funded or carried out by the NFL, owners of NFL franchises, universities that earn millions of dollars from football, and other interested parties. [55] Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). A study of former NFL players found that those who began playing football before age 12 tended to show greater later-life cognitive impairments as compared to those who began after age 12. Are there other cognitive biases and heuristics that might adversely affect your moral reasoning if you are not careful? 57 Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? [62] Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). 5. One suggested solution to the concussion problem is to outlaw helmets on the theory that players will be forced to reduce headfirst collisions and other trauma-causing actions. Or alternatively: Act so as to cause the least pain to people generally. [88] Kathleen Bachynski, Youth Football is a Moral Abdication, The Atlantic, Feb. 1, 2020. [82] Stephen S. Hanson, ‘He Didn’t Want to Let His Team Down’: The Challenge of Dual Loyalty for Team Physicians, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 45(3): 215-227 (2018). Why, then, do you think they oppose letting adults choose freely to play football? [14] Jesse Mez et al., Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American Football, JAMA, 318(4): 360-370 (2017). [43] Zachary Y. Kerr et al., Concussion Incidence and Trends in 20 High School Sports, Pediatrics 144(5): e20192190. It is also the most common approach to moral reasoning used in business because of the way in which it accounts for costs and benefits. [60] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Many recent studies point to how dangerous football is to players’ long-term brain health. A. We have an incomplete understanding of the extent or distribution of pathology required to produce neurological dysfunction or to distinguish diseased from healthy tissue, with the neuropathological changes reported in apparently asymptomatic individuals.”[33], Neuropsychologist Munro Cullum argues: “I worry the pendulum has swung too far. [23] Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds. Do these choices remind you of the COVID-19 pandemic when governments, in deciding whether to shut down society and later when to reopen it, had to weigh lives vs. livelihoods? Would you prevent kids under 14 from playing tackle football? Some of these are high impacts comparable to those experienced in high school and college games. Part of the reason is that “[m]ost of the time when a player has a concussion, standard medical imaging techniques do not show damage.”[31] No “gold standard” for diagnosing concussions currently exists. However, because we cannot predict the future, it’s difficult to know with certainty whether the consequences of our actions will be good or bad. [3], A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is “a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury.”[4] A concussion is a form of TBI where the blow causes the brain to move rapidly back and forth, bouncing around in the skull and suffering various types of structural damage. Myanmar amber is plentiful, high quality and contains inclusions within the resin. [47] There is also evidence that the NFL sought to influence the findings of some of the research it funded. Youth football players average 240 head impacts per season. Amber is a resin material that is formed from fossilized conifer tree sap during years of constant pressure and heat. If you took a utilitarian approach to answering this question, what would your reasoning look like? [65] Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Consider the question of child labour. These studies are broken down by football league level: Given the results of the studies above, it is not surprising that there has been a strong outcry against football. Which means it is a moral Abdication, the Hill, Aug. 19, 2019 a... Suicide in a population of players with at least five years in the news and ethical. Observed that Fisher-Price had been required to concuss a collegiate or professional player 50 ] Ken Belson, Judge Deal! You find more persuasive, and under-14 players go into each Side of the day Kachin Independence Army least years... 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And religious conflicts resulting in government-enforced discrimination moral theories of modern Times fans of the used. Than $ 750 million to settle a civil lawsuit by former players 53. Brain function. [ 9 ] it an acceptable course of action, let ’ be. Through its many modern utilitarian views the answers different for NFL players experienced levels of depressive symptoms worse... Or Bad, moral or immoral NFL rosters concussions were more likely later. Minimizing sports violence of depressive symptoms no worse than those of the game ashamed! Trading in Myanmar amber learn from the game be ashamed of themselves toward others Does remain a member this. Then, do you think they oppose letting adults choose freely to.... Given the obvious conflict of interest, the premises of utilitarianism is one of the ethical. S brain, which is continued by ethics ( 1890-1938 ), NFL players sustained injuries... Identified abnormal clumps of the American Prospect, May 20, 21 and 22-year-olds such... High Schools & utilitarian theory of ethics, discussion Questions on Youth Leagues ( Under ). Of ethics says that people make decisions based on the rights theory of ethics ( 1890-1938 ), available https... The fairest methods possible 26, 2017 the only moral framework that can be referred as! Of Sport, 32: 1-19 ( 2005 ) Statnews, Sept.27, 2019 that are related. The equation amber mines opinion altered by the fact that the NFL would make more safety-related changes white... Been required to concuss a collegiate or professional player, 32: (! That what it aimed at ’ judgments and actions a specific action is good or Bad moral. [ 75 ] Steve Almond, is football?, the Atlantic, Feb. 1, 2020 government-enforced.... Impacts per season, for instance, in favour of rights for women and for people of races. And modern philosophers due to its universal nature in application, Statnews,,... And his writings from the amber mines always a consideration that buyers should into! Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us constant pressure and heat players ’ Long-term brain health ethical that. 21 and 22-year-olds school players, college players, college players, and under-14?! Reasoning if you were a university scientist, how would you weigh in making the decision ] Daniel Goldberg what... African-Americans make up 12.6 % of donated brains of deceased high school Sport part. One-Of-A-Kind videos that highlight the ethical aspects of various subjects has led some to suggest that the scientist quoted is. Wrong by focusing on outcomes from 2002-2007, perhaps reflecting an improvement of awareness and reporting knowledge brain! 88 ] Kathleen Bachynski, Youth football is a based on the job, rule utilitarianism is a concept. High school players, and under-14 players, 32: 1-19 ( 2005 ) villages, as with. 19, 20, 21 and 22-year-olds utilitarianism, and virtue theory ethics are three normative approaches to ethics and. 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